Ball Tampering is an attempt by the fielding side to change the condition of the ball and help the bowler to reverse swing the ball. The shine of ball could be scuffed or tampered using various items including fingernail, Bottle caps, Spikes of the shoes, Hairgel and other items which can change the condition of the ball.
The purpose of ball tampering would be to help bowlers get reverse swing. The fielder cannot apply substance such as lip balm or sweet salva regarding ball tampering. It is a big crime for the bowlers to do ball tampering.
A bowler can use spit or sweat, is common for any swing bowler. The bowler rubs with the cloth to dry or polish it would be making it legal regarding ball tampering.
Recent episode of Cameron Bancroft using a yellow tape during the 3rd test against South Africa at Cape Town had shocked the cricketing world. David Warner and Steve Smith are likely to be banned for one year, could miss the series against India at the end of the year.
Many players have been involved in the ball tampering case including Micheal Atherton in 1994. He was caught on television cameras where he put dirt in his pocket. Atherton did not agree and said that he had dirt to dry his hands. The match referee summoned Atherton and fined Dollar 2,000.
Waqar Younis became the first cricketer to be banned for ball tampering after a match in 2000 against Sri Lanka.
Sachin Tendulkar was banned for ball tampering during 2001 test series against South Africa at Port Elizabeth. During that match, Mike Denness suspended Sachin Tendulkar, the Television cameras caught Sachin Tendulkar in cleaning the seam of the ball.
In 2004, Rahul Dravid was banned for coughing a lozenge on the more shiny side during the Tri-series match against Zimbabwe. The cameras showed that Rahul Dravid was caught with ball tampering and was charged with half match fee.
In 2006, ball tampering took place in a test match between England and Pakistan where Pakistan did not take the field after being punished for ball tampering in the evening session. The match referee awarded the match to England according to rules.
In 2010, The England pace duo of Stuart Broad and James Anderson were seen of ball tampering on ground with shoe spikes during the third test match against South Africa. In the same year, Shahid Afridi was seen biting the ball to change condition of ball. He was banned for 2 T20I matches in the tour of Australia in 2010.
On the tour of Australia, South African captain Faf du Plessis was seen ball tampering against the zip of the trousers. The match referee penalized 50% fine on South African captain. Also Vernon Philander was involved during that match.
In 2014, South Africa toured Sri Lanka, South African pace bowler Vernon Philander was charged to scrub the seam of the ball with his fingers and thumb; he was charged 75% of his match fees.
In 2016, South Africa toured Australia; the cameras caught South African captain Faf du Plessis applying Salva onto the ball from a mint or lollipop. Du Plessis was charged with ball tampering.